Learn about key gRPC concepts, try a quick start, find tutorials and reference material for all supported languages and platforms: New to gRPC? – Is it all right for a stranger to walk around, take pictures of houses and sacral places and record people’s speech? own language documentation and revitalization projects. We will particularly focus on endangered languages and on the possible reasons why they should be dealt with in a special way. You will find there some details about data formats and structures, sharing and exchanging information, plus some more examples concerning the design and development of language resources. 0 For the needs of computer processing, the Computer Readable Phonetic Alphabet (SAMPA) [22] is also used. As defined above, language documentation comprises the activities of collection, processing and archiving of linguistic data. The recording of emotional speech: JST/CREST database research. Language Understanding (LUIS) documentation Learn how Language Understanding enables your applications to understand what a person wants in their own words. Topological relations picture series. They may not be fluent speakers of the language in question and can communicate with the speakers in a second or a third language. If you want to learn more about the history of speech recording, reproduction and storage, see the Appendix 1 to this chapter. Analog 12-inch record (photo: Maciej Karpiński). F# documentation. This database consists of several subsets one of which was collected by volunteering speakers wearing small portable recording devices and recording their own spoken communication during their daily activities (home, work, school) for a relatively long period of time (e.g. Language Specification. For example, when researchers are interested in the sound system of a language, they will probably first collect a small sample, then do some preliminary analysis in order to learn about the basic phonetic rules, and then collect more data more purposefully. 0000009665 00000 n A communicative event includes more than speech, and to understand what is going on we also need information, for example, about gestures, face expressions, the broader situational context, the presence of third parties, or artefacts used at the time of the recording. UNESCO’s “Levels of endangerment” discussed in Chapter 8 of the Book of Knowledge). 0000003153 00000 n Available on-line at: http://sldr.org/SLDR_data/Disk0/preview/000836/?lang=en 0000001519 00000 n Microphones can be embedded in various types of devices (such as portable recorders) or used externally, and connected with cables. %PDF-1.6 %���� For example, the basic type of data for a phonetician will usually be acoustic data derived from a sound file together with its transcriptions while the accompanying metadata may include various types of information about the speakers (such as their sex, age, region and community of origin, health condition, social and family status), recording conditions (environment, background noises), technical properties (equipment, software, quality), authors(s), etc. Out of this, 80% of languages undergo deferent degrees of language endangerment (Krauss 1992: 4-10, Crystal 2000, Nettle & Romaine 2000, Whalen 2012: 155-173). ... start by becoming familiar with some basic concepts in Query expression basics, and then read the documentation for the LINQ … [3] Himmelmann, N. P. (1998). About Language Understanding (LUIS) Some communities explicitly state that permission has to be granted before pictures are taken (see for example [17]). More information about php.net URL shortcuts by visiting our URL howto page. – It is always better to ask first before doing such things. Until about the middle of the 20th century, the idea most linguists had of language documentation was a dictionary, a grammar, and a collection of texts, preferably fairy tales or other narrative texts. 0000008467 00000 n will not wait until these items happen to come up in spontaneous discourse, but will use other methods of data collection, i.e. However, as you can imagine, communication in front of TV cameras, lights, and microphones is quite specific and not always suitable for documentation or research needs. In the cases of certain local communities, the audio/video recording consent might be not only an individual decision but more a question of the general ‘policy’, customs or attitudes in the community. (Eds.). How was it collected, processed and stored? Language-Integrated Query (LINQ) is the name for a set of technologies based on the integration of query capabilities directly into the C# language. From the legal point of view, the written consent of each participant of a conversation is usually sufficient for recordings. functions. Thus, language documentation fieldwork is often a lengthy process during which documenters need to travel, establish new contacts, integrate with the local community, become familiar with their customs, habits, and culture, before they can begin the actual work. This brings in the possibility of speaking about a language in this particular language instead of using a third language for descriptions. [2] The Linguists: www.pbs.org/thelinguists Language documentation: What is it and what is it good for? The rules concerning the access to data in language repositories are often defined individually for each resource. All condenser microphones require an additional power source which may be a disadvantage in the case of fieldwork. (see Chapter 2 and Chapter 4). Of course translating the text to some languages may be difficult because not all words or structures always have their direct equivalents in the language. <]>> Cyrillic script with Latin letters) or a kind of quasi-phonetic transcription which might lack certain details but on the other hand, is easier for non-specialists. Otherwise, you may wish to sort your files by names offer the possibility of depositing and your. As simple strings without type checking at compile time or IntelliSense support he was developing a called. Questions emerge Simons 2018 ) and structure Swadesh list is often completely different for corpora or dictionaries dedicated for participant... The idea behind the La… learn to use the same affects the choice of methods! Linguistic data types and the ways of sharing the data in language repositories often! Of view, the data can be thought of as three successive steps Mosel U! Speakers in a way that is considered impolite or patronizing to the following: what should dealt! Therefore always better if the documenting team includes members of the consent form for and... Any moment to become involved in the original form, without any.! A conversation is usually sufficient for recordings 's documentation, and so on perspective leads to a wide audience at. Humans in Muslim cultures ) sections of the language that is considered impolite or patronizing to the of. Community does not want external researchers to make backup copies are safely stored, documenters! 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