The Cause Map is used to identify all the possible solutions for a given issue so that the best solutions can be selected. Copyright ©2012. In a few short minutes, the dam virtually disappeared, and a torrent of water began a 17-mile trip down the narrow Buffalo Creek valley in rural Logan County, West Virginia. You will want to make sure that you In 1973, the Dam Control Act was passed, requiring all earthen dams, including impoundment dams, be constructed with solid engineering design and materials. The Buffalo Creek Disaster This Book was an outstanding depiction of how our court systems in the United States work. However, this was not an extraordinary amount for the area and time of year. At this stage, all solutions are considered and put on the Cause Map. The Buffalo Creek Disaster, February 26, 1972. The commissions also determined that mining safety regulations and enforcement at the state level were lacking, likely contributing to the disastrous flood. The Buffalo Creek Disaster: How the survivors of one of the worst disasters in coal-mining history brought suit against the coal company--and won: Stern, Gerald M.: 9780307388490: Books - Amazon.ca It was estimated at the time of the incident there were 137 million gallons of water being contained. The property goal was impacted with 500+ houses completely destroyed, 900+ houses damaged, and significant damage to the highway systems, not to mention the complete destruction of the dams themselves. The book is a paperback edition, and, despite its 1976 publication date, continues to be available. It is easier to identify many possible solutions from the detailed Cause Map than an oversimplified high level analysis. The stress on Dam #3 was due to the volume of water impounded behind the wall. The strength of Dam #3 was a function of the material of construction and the foundation. The survivors of the Buffalo Creek disaster suffered both individual and collective trauma, the latter being reflected in their loss of communality. In late February 1972 a coal waste impoundment dam along the Buffalo Creek in Logan County, West Virginia collapsed. Each step will be discussed below. Gerald Stern, from the time he had accepted the case, in my opinion, was out for establishing justice. In addition, in order for a dam to fail, the dam has to exist. vtlynch Buffalo Creek Disaster Book Review “Oyez, oyez, oyez” The law comes to life like never before in The Buffalo Creek Disaster written by Gerald M. Stern. Canadian Mining Scandals; Coal Mining; Mining Safety and Health. CFP: Green Criminology Conference In London, Upcoming Green Crime Conference In London, “Visual” Green Criminology? The Buffalo Creek disaster encouraged the state of West Virginia to bolster oversight and mine safety regulations, culminating in passage of the Dam Control Act. The commission reports noted that West Virginia’s lax regulations, inspection policies and penalties for mine safety violators contributed to the Buffalo Creek disaster. In a matter of minutes, 118 were dead and over 4,000 people were left homeless. The analysis step is where the incident is broken down into causes which are captured on the Cause Map. We continue to ask “Why” questions to develop the Cause Map. Human relationships in this community had been derived from traditional bonds of kinship and neighborliness. Solutions are typically placed in a green box directly above the cause the solution controls. Professor Philip G. Schräg (Georgetown Following the Buffalo Creek flood three separate investigative commissions were established. The disaster killed 125 people, injured more than 1,000, and left about 4,000 people homeless. Rainfall was concentrated in the Buffalo Creek and Spring Creek drainages. In the 72 hours prior to the incident, the valley had received over 3″ of rainfall. Choose from 44 different sets of Buffalo Creek Disaster Stern flashcards on Quizlet. Tempers and public outrage increased following the flood, when officials from Pittson Coal deflected responsibility for the flood, deeming it an “act of God.”  As a result, three commissions—federal, state and citizen—were organized to determine the causes of the dam collapse. Upon completion, Dam No. Solutions can be documented directly on the Cause Map. The enactment and enforcement of this law addressed many of the causes of the Buffalo Creek Flood. The Buffalo Creek Disaster: How the Survivors of One of the Worst Disasters in Coal-Mining History Brought Suit Against the Coal Company- And Won [Stern, Gerald M.] on Amazon.com. All Rights Reserved. On February 26, 1972 at approximately 8:00 A.M., Coal Slurry Impoundment #3 at the Buffalo Creek coal mine in Logan County, West Virginia gave way sending millions of gallons of water and millions of cubic yards of coal slurry down the Buffalo Creek. (4) On February 26, 1972, a dam on Buffalo Creek owned by Buffalo Mining Company gave way and creek waters destroyed plaintiff's house and property and caused plaintiff great pain of body and mind. The people were in the path of the flood waters because they lived in the path and they were not warned of the danger. In this example we’ll start with the 125 fatalities which were a result of people drowning. In this case, the safety goal was impacted due to 125 fatalities. The resulting flood killed 125 people and caused over $50 million in damage. no comments. Had the company put in place measures like frequent checks and maintenance, this collapse could have not occurred. The coal refuse dams today, many of which date back before the Buffalo Creek disaster, measure 20,000 acre-feet. Dam #3 had been built on an estimated 40-100 ft of old sludge deposits which provided negligible shear strength. • On February 26, 1972, at 8:05 a.m., all three dams failed and 132 million gallons of water and coal mining waste came crashing down upon the small towns New York: Vintage Books, 1976 This is a first hand account of the case written by the lawyer representing the victims. misrepresentation is in the case of the Buffalo Creek Disaster vs the Pittston and Buffalo Coal Company. More than thirty years ago, one of the deadliest floods in U.S. history occurred in southern West Virginia's Buffalo Creek hollow. The analysis can continue by asking Why questions and moving to the right of either of the cause-and-effect relationships above. In the afterword he mentioned how sad he was it was over. The steps of Cause Mapping are the same, but the level of detail is different. The disaster at Buffalo Creek remains one of America’s most … The people being in the path of the flood waters is also required to produce that effect. When did it happen? Loss of communality at Buffalo Creek. The Buffalo Creek flood was a disaster that occurred on February 26, 1972, when the Pittston Coal Company's coal slurry impoundment dam #3, located on a hillside in Logan County, West Virginia, burst, four days after having been declared "satisfactory" by a federal mine inspector. Dam #3 failed due to the strength of the dam and the stress on the dam (the water). Federal mining regulations and inspections were strengthened, as were the penalties for safety violations. November 1968 Consolidation Coal Company mine explosion at Farmington, WV. The investigations revealed that Pittson Coal Company—owners of the Buffalo Creek mine— improperly constructed the impoundment dam, known as Dam No. In this case the Buffalo Creek Flood of 1972 is captured as an example of the Cause Mapping method. Around 8 a.m., February 26, 1972, after several wet winter days, Dam No. 3, and willfully disregarded safety concerns about Dam No.3 and two smaller dams. In late February 1972 a coal waste impoundment dam along the Buffalo Creek in Logan County, West Virginia collapsed. The Adobe Acrobat file available below contains copies of original documents used in the Buffalo Creek civil case. Investigations and complaints in the late 1960s revealed that Dam 1 and Dam 2 were both constructed without permits. Seven were never found. Disaster at Buffalo Creek. There was no other emergency spillway capable of handling higher volumes of water under emergency conditions. Wherefore plaintiff demands judgment against defendant in the amount of $100,000 compensatory and $1,000,000 punitive damages. The three steps are 1) Define the problem, 2) Conduct the analysis and 3) Identify the best solutions. You read Marc Galanter 's article `` Why the Haves Come out Ahead. Disaster ( new York: Books... Defendant in the book, the safety goal was impacted because of the Buffalo Creek mine— constructed... The need for the refuse dam, dam No input collapsed and water Resources Division inspectors checked the dams nothing! Clean-Up and recovery efforts mining ; mining safety and Health most costly and deadly preventable mining related catastrophes need... Heavy rain produced a raging flood whom was only three months old when the flood, nationwide inspections similar... Is one of America ’ s Ad Hoc Commission of Inquiry, 1973 – the Green Criminology dam.... 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